Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
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CASE REPORT
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 176-179

Severe ABO hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn requiring blood exchange transfusion


1 Department of Transfusion Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Ashish Jain
Department of Transfusion Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh - 160 012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ajts.AJTS_106_17

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ABO incompatibility and other alloantibodies have emerged as a significant cause of hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN), leading to neonatal morbidity and mortality. We report three cases of severe ABO-HDFN where blood exchange transfusions (ETs) were required in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia. Blood grouping (ABO/RhD) was performed using conventional tube technique. The antibody screen was done using commercial three-cell panel (Bio-Rad ID-Diacell-I-II-III, Switzerland) by gel technique. Direct antiglobulin test (DAT) on neonatal sample and compatibility testing were also done by gel technique. Elution on DAT-positive sample was performed using “heat elution” method. All the three neonates were A RhD positive and were born to O RhD-positive mothers who were negative for antibody screen. Their DAT was positive (2+) and the elution of neonatal red cells yielded a positive reaction with A cells which was suggestive of anti-A antibody. The maternal anti-A (immunoglobulin G) antibody titers were high: 512 and 1024 (in two cases). The total serum bilirubin (mg/dl) of the three neonates was 22, 27, and 25 which came down significantly after they received ETs. Severe ABO-HDFN may occur in neonates born to mother with high titer ABO antibodies which can be effectively managed with ET.


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2006 - Asian Journal of Transfusion Science | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th November, 2006