Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 135-139

Detection of alloimmunization to ensure safer transfusion practice


1 Department of Transfusion Medicine at Artemis Health Institute, Gurgaon, India
2 Department of Transfusion Medicine, Molecular Biology and Transplant Immunology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 Transfusion Medicine, Medanta The Medicity, Gurgaon, India

Correspondence Address:
Rashmi Sood
Transfusion Medicine, Artemis Health Institute, Gurgaon
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-6247.115577

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Background: Serological safety is an integral part of overall safety for blood banks. Emphasis is on the use of routinue Red Blood Cell (RBC) antibody screen test, at set time intervals, to reduce risks related to alloantibodies. Also emphasis is on importance of issuing antigen negative blood to alloantibody positive patients. Effect of using leucodepleted blood on the rate of alloimmunization is highlighted. The concept of provision of phenotypically matched blood is suggested. Materials and Methods: Antibody screen test is important to select appropriate blood for transfusion. Repeat antibody screen testing, except if time interval between the earlier and subsequent transfusion was less than 72 hours, followed by antibody identification, if required, was performed in patients being treated with repeat multiple blood transfusions. Between February 2008 and June 2009, repeat samples of 306 multi-transfused patients were analyzed. Search for irregular antibodies and reading of results was conducted using RBC panels (three-cell panel of Column Agglutination Technology (CAT) and two cell panel of the Solid Phase Red Cell Adherence Technology (SPRCAT). Specificities of antibodies were investigated using appropriate panels, 11 cell panel of CAT and 16 cell panel of SPRCA. These technologies, detecting agglutination in columns and reactions in solid phase, evaluate the attachment of irregular incomplete antibody to antigen in the first phase of immunological reaction more directly and hence improve the reading of agglutination. Three to four log leuco reduced red blood cells were transfused to patients in the study using blood collection bags with integral filters. Results: Alloimmunization rate of 4.24% was detected from 306 multiply transfused patients tested and followed up. The Transfusion therapy may become significantly complicated. Conclusion: Red cell antibody screening and identification and subsequent issue of antigen negative blood have a significant role in improving blood safety. Centers that have incorporated antibody screen test and identification have ensured safe transfusion. Identified patients should be flagged in a database and information shared. Such patients can be given carry-on cards and educated about the names of the identified antibodies. Full red cell phenotyping of individuals, patients and donors, can be feasibility.


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2006 - Asian Journal of Transfusion Science | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th November, 2006