Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 106-110

Therapeutic plasma exchange in HELLP syndrome: A life savior

Department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Mohit Chowdhry
Department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ajts.ajts_176_20

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BACKGROUND: HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count) syndrome occurs in about 0.5%–0.9% of all pregnancies, but its prevalence is higher in patients with severe preeclampsia, accounting for a substantial maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. According to the latest American Society for Apheresis guidelines, Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) performed for postpartum cases and antepartum HELLP syndrome cases fall in Categories III and IV, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis was done at our tertiary care center from January 2014 to June 2019 for patients diagnosed with HELLP syndrome. Clinical data for age, gestational age at the time of diagnosis, type of delivery, outcome of pregnancy, history of preeclampsia /eclampsia, hemoglobin levels, AST, ALT, LDH, platelet counts, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, international normalised ratio, complete blood count, was obtained from patients' electronic medical records. The TPE was initiated within 24 hrs of diagnosis. All TPE was done on Spectra Optia apheresis system (Terumo BCT, Inc, USA). Statistical testing was conducted with the statistical package for the social science system version SPSS 20.0 and R-3.2.0. Continuous variables were expressed as mean±SD and were compared between Pre and Post TPE records of patients by using the paired T test. RESULTS: Nine patients fulfilled the criteria of HELLP syndrome. Seven (77.8%) were diagnosed in the postpartum period and 2 (22.2%) during the second trimester. Out of the total nine patients, two patients (22.2%) recovered completely and were discharged on day 15 ± 7 days, whereas 4 (44.4%) patients were discharged on day 21 ± 7 days with the advice of hemodialysis. Two (22.2%) patients had an intrauterine death and were discharged 3–4 days after the demise. In all these patients (except one), the TPE was initiated within 24 h of the diagnosis. A significant increase in platelet count and decrease in the lactate dehydrogenase levels (P < 0.05) was observed post TPE. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that TPE improved the treatment outcome in patients with HELLP syndrome despite being a Category III and IV indication among postpartum and antenatal females, respectively. However, a timely diagnosis and management are of paramount importance for a favorable outcome. TPE needs to be performed within 24 h of the diagnosis postdelivery when the patient is not responsive to the usual therapies, especially in class I HELLP syndrome.

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2006 - Asian Journal of Transfusion Science | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th November, 2006