Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-June 2021
Volume 15 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-118

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

National blood donor vigilance programme of India: Analysis of donor adverse reactions reported during initial 2 years of implementation (2016 and 2017) Highly accessed article p. 1
Akanksha Bisht, Neelam Marwaha, Satyam Arora, Gopal K Patidar, Reba Chhabra
DOI:10.4103/ajts.ajts_195_20  
Introduction: The donor vigilance program is intended to collect and assess information on unexpected or undesirable effects or reactions resulting from blood donation. In this report, we discuss the analysis of the blood donor adverse reactions (DARs) reported in the National Blood Donor Vigilance Programme of India during the first 2 years of implementation. Materials and Methods: DAR reporting form prepared and approved by the National Executive Committee of the Haemovigilance Programme of India was used to capture the data by the blood centers and submitted to Donor-Vigil software prepared and hosted by the official website of the National Institute of Biologicals. Data reported for the years 2016 and 2017 were reviewed, analyzed, and validated by independent transfusion medicine experts. Results: During this period, a total of 19,98,101 donations denominator data were reported, in which 1,622,600 (80.9%) were valid. A total of 6091 DARs were reported, out of which 3980 (65.35%) were found valid. Only validated numerator and denominator data were included in the analysis. Generalized DARs were the most common type of DARs reported (83.7%), followed by “others” type (7.7%), localized (7.6%), allergic (0.4%), and complications related to apheresis (0.4%). The overall DAR rate was 2.45/1000 blood donations, which was higher in apheresis donations (3.07/1000) as compared to whole blood donations (2.39/1000). The DARs rates were higher in females (3.5/1000) compared to male donors (2.3/1000) and in the first time (2.5/1000) compared to repeat donors (2.15/1000). Conclusion: In this report, we concluded that younger age, first time, and female donors are more prone to DARs as compared to older age, repeat, and male donors. During the analysis of the data, we found some limitations, which can be improved by upgrading the reporting form and conducting regular continuing medical education (CMEs) of participant blood centers.
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A novel observation on grouping anomaly: The phenomena mimicking the Bel genetic variant of the ABO blood groups Highly accessed article p. 12
Sanmukh R Joshi, Ashish N Kanani, Snehal B Senjaliya, Manisha M Rajapara
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_64_19  
Background: Discrepancy in “forward/reverse” grouping leads to confusion in assigning ABO group to a person. It could be genetic in nature and classified according to the presence/absent of antigen on red blood cell (RBC) vis-a-vis corresponding alloantibody in plasma. AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the grouping anomaly found in a recently delivered woman who required transfusion. Materials and Methods: A standard protocol for investigation was followed. Results: A 27-year-old female, gravida 4, para 3, was grouped O on forward grouping, but her serum did not agglutinate Group B RBCs tested. Absorption-elution study gave an active eluate from her sensitized RBCs with anti-B or anti-A+B. Saliva showed H, but no B antigens indicating to her Bel phenotype. However, 2-week latter in the follow-up study, her serum revealed a presence of complement binding high titer anti-B. The problem of missing anti-B on the previous occasion was attributed to hemagglutination inhibition caused by accumulated complement macromolecules on RBCs that gave rise to physical hindrance in the formation hemagglutination clumps. Conclusion: The unusual case of erroneous reversed grouping was attributed to complement-mediated hemagglutination inhibition. The positive eluate obtained from sensitized RBCs of the mother was considered to be due to a contamination of fetal RBCs in maternal circulation entered during her postpartum phase of pregnancy. It could also be due to a conversion of H to B antigen no matter in trace amount by the fetal B group-specific transferase percolated into maternal circulation.
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Prevalance of Anti-HLA antibodies in parous female blood donors: A pilot study from tertiary care hospital of north india p. 16
Arcot Jayachandran Priyadarsini, Hari Krishan Dhawan, Ratti Ram Sharma, Biman Saikia, Ranjana W Minz
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_30_19  
Background: Various studies have implicated that plasma causing transfusion-related acute lung injury is from alloimmunized females. The frequency of sensitization to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) was found to correlate with their parity score. No literature on the prevalence of anti-HLA antibodies in Indian blood donors is available to date. Hence, this pilot study was done to know the frequency of HLA alloimmunization in Indian blood donors. Materials and Methods: A total of 192 consenting voluntary blood donors from blood donation camps were enrolled in the study. Test group: Parous female donors (n = 96) and control group: Nulliparous female donors (n = 48) and male donors (n = 48). HLA alloimmunization was tested on the Luminex platform by screening assay to detect IgG antibodies to HLA Class I and II molecules of human origin. A mean fluoresence index of more than 2000 was considered as a positive reaction, considering the high sensitivity of Luminex assay. Results: Sixty-three out of 192 donors (32.8%) tested positive for anti-HLA antibodies, out of which 23 donors were in the control group (23.9%), and 40 donors were in the test group (41.7%); P = 0.002. On gender-based comparison, 9 out of 48 male donors (18.7%), as compared to 54 out of 144 female donors (37.5%), tested positive for HLA antibodies (P = 0.02). Based on an increase in parity score, the frequency of HLA alloimmunization was found to be significantly correlated (P = 0.002). A decrease in the trend of HLA alloimmunization was observed as the duration from the last pregnancy increased. A higher frequency of HLA alloimmunization was observed in female donors with a history of transfusion and bad obstetric history. Conclusion: The present study substantiates that plasma from parous female donors has a higher chance of containing anti-HLA antibodies as compared to nulliparous female and male donors.
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Implementation of internal quality control program for monitoring of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performance at a blood center p. 21
Anju Dubey, Atul Sonker
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_59_19  
Background: Internal quality control (IQC) samples may be incorporated in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) routinely for detection of errors occurring due to change in environmental conditions, test system, or operator performance. We have described methodology for preparation of IQC samples, monitoring of results using Levey–Jennings (LJ) charts and their interpretation. We have also described our experience of quality control in ELISA using IQC samples, identification of errors and corrections applied. Materials and Methods: IQC samples for anti-HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HCV ELISA were prepared “in-house” using standard methodology. After validation of run, E-ratio of IQC sample was calculated and plotted on LJ chart. Further interpretation was done to detect the errors. LJ charts illustrating the performance of IQC samples on 180 runs for each ELISA were drawn and analyzed. Results: For anti-HIV ELISA, violation of warning rule was found in 2 runs (1.11%). Only one run (0.55%) was rejected due to violation of rejection rule. For HBsAg ELISA, violation of warning rule was indicated in two runs (1.11%). Two runs (1.11%) were rejected due to violation of rejection rules. For anti-HCV ELISA, violation of warning rule was indicated in two runs (1.11%), whereas two runs were rejected due to violation of rejection rules. Comprehensive checks were performed for the evaluation of equipment calibration, handling, and storage temperature of reagents and operator's technique. A thorough investigation was undertaken according to the type of error. Conclusion: Inclusion of IQC with each ELISA run is valuable to check the assay performance, ensuring reliability and reproducibility of test results.
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Evaluation of quality matrix when practice changed from triple bags to quadruple (top and bottom) bags: In vitro analysis of blood components! p. 30
Gunjan Bhardwaj, Aseem Kumar Tiwari, Geet Aggarwal, Swati Pabbi, Jyoti Sharma, Aanchal Luthra, Anand Upadhyay
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_87_19  
Background: As a part of continuous quality initiatives, while moving from triple bags to quadruple bags, we undertook a study to compare platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and buffy-coat (BC) methods with respect to all blood components (red blood cells [RBCs], random donor platelet concentrate [RDPC], and fresh frozen plasma [FFP]) prepared by PRP and BC methods. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective analysis of different physical and quality parameters of RDPC, RBC, and FFP prepared out of 100 whole blood (WB) donations. Of these, 50 WB units were processed by PRP method using Triple bags and 50 WB units by BC method, using quadruple (top and bottom) bags, with an attached integral filter. Results: RBC prepared by BC method had higher hematocrit (61.3 ± 1.91% vs. 56.03 ± 3.37%; P < 0.05) and lower white blood cell (WBC) contamination (6.3 × 104 ± 6.1 vs. 5.41 × 105 ± 2.5; P < 0.05) in comparison to prepared by PRP method. Higher PLT yield (7.67 × 1010 ± 1.8 vs. 6.47 × 1010 ± 1.5; P < 0.05) and lower WBC count (8.24 × 103 ± 1.1 vs. 1.5 × 104 ± 2.1; P < 0.05) was observed in RDPC prepared by BC method than PRP derived. CD62P expression was lower in RDPC prepared by BC method (31.46 ± 9.7%; P < 0.05) as compared to PRP method (43.35 ± 12.5%; P < 0.05). The BC method also resulted in increased plasma yield (210.56 ± 18.54 ml vs. 187.92 ± 12.93 ml; P < 0.05) in FFP in comparison to PRP method. Conclusion: The blood components produced from WB by the BC method have laboratory variables suggestive of superior quality than those produced by the PRP method.
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A comparative study of knowledge, attitude, and practices about organ donation among blood donors and nonblood donors p. 37
Abhishekh Basavarajegowda, Charumathy Arjunan, YC Nalini, Sreejith Parameshwaran, Sujitha Kannan
DOI:10.4103/ajts.ajts_9_21  
Introduction: Shortage of organs by donation is a national problem which needs a multipronged approach for its strengthening. Educating the people and increasing the awareness of the need for donation would be of the foremost priority. Identifying the target population who are more likely to respond would be very important to reap the maximum results. There is speculation that blood donors would be more amenable and likely to accept the idea and thought of organ donation. This study is being designed to study the same. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional comparative questionnaire-based study among two groups: blood donors and nonblood donors. Donors were defined as aged above 18 years and have made at least one whole blood/apheresis donation. Nondonors were the ones who were aged above 18 years and have not donated whole blood/apheresis blood products in the past. All the responses were entered in the Microsoft Excel sheets, and statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results: A total of 829 participated in the study. Among the 829 participants, 416 were donors, and 413 were nondonors. There was no difference in knowledge regarding organ donation among the groups except for perceived risks of organ donation among nondonors. Concerning attitudes, they were more favorable among blood donors, and it was statistically significant at a P < 0.05. Conclusion: There was no difference with respect to knowledge between donors and nondonors. However, donors had a more favorable attitude toward organ donation. Factors like concerns about misuse of donated organs, lack of clarity on their religion's policy toward organ donation, and potential for harm for the organ donor seem to account for the unfavorable attitude of nondonors toward organ donation.
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Therapeutic plasma exchange an emerging treatment modality: A 3-year retrospective analysis of patients admitted in a multispecialty hospital of North India p. 46
Archana Solanki, Ashutosh Singh, Abhishek Chauhan, Devisha Agarwal, D Himanshu, Tulika Chandra
DOI:10.4103/ajts.ajts_125_20  
Background and Aims: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is increasingly used throughout the medical field. We aimed to analyze the various aspects of TPE practices at our hospital in terms of clinical indications, technical feasibility, safety, outcome as well as complications associated with the procedures. Materials and Methods: The data included demographic profiles, clinical parameters, and technical characteristics of each TPE procedure. All the information was noted in data spread sheet (Microsoft Excel 2013) for further analysis. Results: This is a 3-year retrospective study of total 266 TPE procedures carried out on 92 patients with different clinical conditions. Out of them, 55 (59.8%) were male and 37 (40.2%) were female patients. There were six major categories such as (1) neurological, (2) hematological, (3) gastrological, (4) renal, (5) rheumatic, and (6) others. The TPE treatment was highest in neurology group (60.2%), followed by gastrology group (24.4%). Most of the procedures (82.6%) were according to the American society of apheresis 2016 I or II categories (76/92 patients). Conclusion: TPE is beneficial and used as primary or secondary adjunctive therapy for a wide spectrum of various diseases and syndromes. TPE is considered as safe, cost-effective, and life-saving treatment modality in various diseases.
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Red cell alloimmunization among antenatal women attending tertiary care center in Jamnagar, Gujarat, India p. 52
Spruha Kashyap Dholakiya, Sumit Bharadva, Jitendra H Vachhani, B Shweta Upadhyay
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_72_17  
Background: The following study was conducted to measure the presence of alloantibodies of Rh and other blood group antigens produced due to fetomaternal hemorrhage in all antenatal women as well as those leading to hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn; presenting to a tertiary care center, G.G. Government Hospital, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India, between April 2014 and March 2016 (2 years). Materials and Methods: All multiparous women irrespective of their period of gestation or obstetrics history were included whereas those having taken anti-D immunoprophylaxis or with a history of blood transfusion were excluded. Antibody screening and identification were done using Bio-Rad ID microtyping system. Results: Out of total 8920 multigravida females, 8488 were D-antigen positive whereas 432 were D-antigen negative. A total of 126 antibodies among 117 females (1.31%) were found; out of them, 33 were found in D-antigen positive females (0.39%) and 84 in D-antigen negative ones (19.44%) looking at overall frequency of other antibodies such as anti-C: 9, anti-c: 9, anti-E: 13, anti-Cw: 1, anti-M: 5, anti-S: 8, anti-Fya: 3, and anti-D: 78; it was found that anti-D is the most common. Conclusion: The rate of alloimmunization in D-antigen negative women was found to be very high as compared to other studies in western region; hence, strict follow-up of immunoprophylaxis of all Rh D-negative women needs to be taken care of. Apart from this, D-antigen-positive women also show alloimmunization against various antigens giving the prevalence of 0.39%; hence, it should be mandatory that there should be one standard universal protocol for screening of all antenatal women.
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Evaluation of the confidential unit exclusion on Iranian blood donors: An 11-year experience p. 57
Mohammad Reza Ameli, Seyed Hossein Hosseini, Fariba Rad, Seyed Mehdi Sajjadi
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_152_18  
Background: Confidential unit exclusion (CUE) was recommended by the Food and Drug Administration to permit blood donors confidentially exclude their donation for transfusion. However, its effectiveness as a safety measure to the blood supply is debated. Aims: We, therefore, evaluated its benefit in identifying donors at risk of transmitting transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) and increasing blood safety in our population. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional and retrospective study. The study was performed at the South Khorasan Blood Transfusion Center. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive and retrospective study, data of CUE use and data of confirmed positive TTI markers were analyzed for the study period 2006–2016. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. Results: Out of 165,267 donations, the CUE option was selected by 493 (0.3%) donors, most frequently by first-time blood donors, by men, by donors with <12 years schooling, and by 18–24-year-old donors. The data revealed that donations from CUE donors had no higher infection rates. Moreover, CUE showed low sensitivity (0.6%) and low positive predictive value (0.6%) in detecting TTI markers. Conclusion: The data do not provide any indication of a safety advantage from CUE; thus, we recommend that the procedure of CUE can be discontinued.
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Role of therapeutic plasma exchange in acute humoral rejection patients undergoing live-related renal transplantation: A single-center experience p. 62
Brinda Kakkar, Raj Nath Makroo, Soma Agrawal, Mohit Chowdhry, Sweta Nayak, Sanjiv Jasuja, Gaurav Sagar, Sandeep Guleria
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_5_19  
Background and Aim: Renal transplantation (RT) is the most successful and ideal renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease patients. Renal allograft rejection has always been one of the major barriers in successful RT. Our aim was to report the role of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in acute humoral rejection (AHR) patients who underwent live-related RT (LRRT) and their renal allograft outcome at our center. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from July 1, 2014, to December 31, 2016. Patients with biopsy-proven AHR and treated with TPE along with other lines of treatment after undergoing LRRT were included in the study. ABO-incompatible individuals, pediatric patients, and patients undergoing second transplants were excluded from the study. Clinical history, donor and graft details, management, and patient and graft survival were noted. Results: Of the 1608 patients who underwent LRRT, 49 (37 males, 76%; 12 females, 24%; mean age 39.5 ± 13.3 years) had biopsy-proven AHR (3.04%) and were treated with TPE. A total of 281 TPEs were performed with an average of 5.7 TPE/patient (range 2–12). Of the 49 patients, 38 patients (78%) with favorable response underwent 213 (75.8%) TPEs (average of 5.6 TPE/patient; range: 2–12), whereas 11 patients (22%) with unfavorable response underwent 68 (24.2%) TPEs (average of 6.2 TPE/patient; range: 3–8). Blood urea (P = 0.012) and serum creatinine (P = 0.038) levels at the time of rejection were significant predictors of response to TPE therapy. The average length of stay in our study population was 33 ± 22 days. Six months posttransplant, the patient and graft survival were 93.3% and 89.5%, whereas at 12 months, they were 89.3% and 81.5%, respectively. Conclusion: TPE is a safe and effective adjunct therapy for treating AHR patients.
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Evaluation of efficacy of Valsalva for attenuating needle puncture pain in first time nonremunerated voluntary plateletpheresis donors: A prospective, randomized controlled trial p. 68
Anubha Srivastava, Sanjay Kumar, Anil Agarwal, Dheeraj Khetan, Rahul Katharia, Prabhaker Mishra, Shikha Khati, Sujeet Gautam, Khuba Sandeep
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_95_20  
Background: Plateletpheresis is generally safe but may have adverse reactions. Adverse reactions can negatively influence donor recruitment and retention. Valsalva is a proven method of attenuating pain caused by venipuncture. Aims: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of the Valsalva maneuver on the attenuation of needle pain and donor anxiety. Settings and Design: This prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted between November 2015 and April 2016 at the Department of Transfusion Medicine. Subjects and Methods: One-hundred and sixty consecutive donors were grouped into control group (C) and Valsalva group (V) each of sample size 80. The Valsalva group performed a Valsalva maneuver and control did nothing before the venipuncture. Anxiety and pain were scored using a 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS). Severity was graded as VAS = 0 defines no pain and anxiety, VAS = 1–3 as mild pain and anxiety, VAS = 4–6 as moderate pain and anxiety, VAS = 7–9 as severe pain and anxiety, whereas VAS = 10 denotes extreme pain and anxiety. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 23 was used for analysis. Independent samples t-test/Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare between treatment and control group, whereas the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the difference between pre- and postobservations. Results: In the Valsalva group, post-Valsalva anxiety levels were significantly reduced to (1 [0–2]) from their pre-Valsalva values of (2 [0–3]); (P < 0.001). Pain was significantly lower (2[1-2]) in Valsalva group compared to control (4[2–5]); (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Valsalva reduced both severity of venipuncture pain and anxiety. Valsalva can be performed by donors as it is an easy, painless, and nonpharmacological method of pain and anxiety attenuation.
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Distribution of Kell antigens K, k, Kpa, and Kpb among blood donors in Jeddah city of Western Saudi Arabia p. 75
Raed I Felimban, Samaha M Sumeda
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_109_19  
Context: Kell blood group system is considered as the third clinically significant blood group in blood transfusion due to the highly immunogenetic of their antigens. No data are available regarding the frequencies of the Kell blood group antigens in Jeddah city. Knowledge of the antigen and phenotype frequencies is crucial to assess the risk of alloimmunization and to guide the probability of finding antigen-negative donor blood, which can be useful when blood transfusion is required for a patient who has multiple red cell alloantibodies. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Kell blood group: K, k, Kpa, and Kpb antigens and phenotypes among blood donors in Jeddah city, western Saudi Arabia, to improve the transfusion services in the area. Subjects and Methods: Seven hundred and fifty-eight blood samples from blood donors were used in the study. The samples were collected from different national blood bank centers in Jeddah city hospitals. Kell antigens were typed through gel card method using commercial antisera. Statistical Analysis Used: The gathered data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Frequency and crosstab tests were completed to achieve the objectives of the current study. Results: The most frequent Kell phenotype in this study was Kp(a−b+), followed by K−k+, K+k+, and then Kp(a+b+), and the less frequent was K+k−. K−k− and Kp(a+b−) phenotypes were not observed in studied donors. Conclusions: This study is the first report to determine the frequency of Kell antigens and phenotypes among blood donors in Jeddah city. These results appear to be useful in providing better care for patients by implementing tests that should become a routine in blood banks. The Kell system is very important in transfusion medicine practice.
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Postdonation information during dengue outbreaks at a single blood center in Brazil: An ally against transfusion-transmitted infections p. 82
Carolina Costa-Lima, Bruno Deltreggia Benites, Daniele Ramos Rocha, Elisabete Andrade, Patricia Alvarez, Mariana Munari Magnus, Marcelo Addas-Carvalho
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_108_18  
Background: Brazilian blood banks encourage donors to report postdonation information (PDI) regarding conditions that would lead to deferral in an attempt to retrieve distributed nonconforming blood. Objectives: This study evaluated the profile of donors reporting PDI, the impact on transfusion safety, and the possible impact on the discard of blood products. Subjects and Methods: We analyzed 115 consecutive PDIs between May 2014 and July 2015, a period comprising two dengue-like syndrome (DLS) outbreaks. Results: These PDIs accounted for 87,780 blood donations. The average time for PDIs since donation was 4 (0–23) days and 190 blood components were discarded. DLS accounted for 21.7% of the PDIs analyzed; 11 of the 23 samples tested were nucleic acid test (NAT) positive for dengue and 2 positive for Zika virus (ZIKV). Six of these PDIs were reported after blood components have been transfused: After NAT testing, one of these recipients was diagnosed with dengue and another one with ZIKV infection, both possible transfusions transmitted but without clinical consequences. Conclusion: The high number of recovered blood components due to PDI suggests that PDI remains a great ally in the fight against transfusion-transmitted infections and may be particularly useful during outbreaks of emerging potentially blood-borne pathogens.
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CASE REPORTS Top

“Auto-anti-A1” in a healthy young blood donor: A rare cause of ABO discrepancy p. 87
Sudipta Sekhar Das, Rathindra Nath Biswas, Mahammad Safi
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_42_20  
”Auto-anti-A1” has been sparsely discussed in the literature. Only few workers in the past depicted such antibody in transfused and nontransfused patients. The current case is probably the first example of auto-anti-A1 in a healthy young blood donor who was typed as ABO Group “A1B.” The cold reacting autoantibody in the donor was serologically characterized in details and was found to be nonhemolytic. ABO discrepancy was resolved and the donor was finally typed as “A1B Negative.” Therefore, we concluded that auto-anti-A1 may be a rare cause of ABO discrepancy and its resolution is essential to confirm blood group and subsequent blood transfusion management.
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Extent of transfusion support in a developing country in managing a bleeding acute myeloid leukemia patient with platelet transfusion refractoriness p. 90
Gayathiri K Chellaiya, Chandran K Nair, Vineetha Raghavan, R Jesu Pandian, Roshan Vinod, Mohandoss Murugesan
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_81_19  
Conventional platelet transfusion may not be adequate to deal with platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR), and therefore human leukocyte antigen (HLA) or human platelet antigen (HPA) matched and platelet crossmatch compatible units are recommended. However, in developing countries, finding a unit that is HLA or HPA matched or platelet crossmatch poses a challenge. Hence, easier and cost-effective alternatives such as massive platelet transfusion and continuous platelet transfusion were attempted to manage bleeding in PTR. A 31-year-old male presented with acute myeloid leukemia relapse and chloroma in bladder underwent FLAG salvage chemotherapy. Despite almost daily platelet transfusion with single donor platelets (SDPs), patient presented with hematuria and low corrected count increment at 1 h and 24 h suggesting both immune and nonimmune refractoriness to platelet transfusion. The patient received SDP transfusion twice daily from day 19 to day 21 to maintain hemostasis. The patient had persistent hematuria, so massive platelet transfusion in the form of double adult doses of SDP given every 12th hourly for three events. Despite these measures, there was persistent hematuria and refractoriness to platelet transfusion. As HLA or HPA matched or crossmatch compatible platelets were unavailable, continuous platelet transfusion was started for this patient from day 23 to day 28. After 4 days of continuous platelet transfusion, hematuria subsided. In resource-constrained clinical settings, continuous platelet transfusion can be an effective alternative to HLA/HPA-matched platelets in the management of PTR.
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Red cell antibodies resulting in false-positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match: A unique case p. 94
Rajesh B Sawant, Sharad Sheth, Pooja Mehta, Deepali Naker
DOI:10.4103/ajts.ajts_132_20  
A false-positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match (CDC XM) has a negative impact in donor selection process obliterating healthy, donor compatible population. A 47-year-old male with chronic kidney disease was planned for ABO-compatible renal transplantation from his sister. CDC and donor-specific antibody (DSA) lysate XM were negative 10 days before transplant. The pretransplant CDC XM showed 40% positivity. DSA lysate XM and HLA antibody screen were negative. Patient's Indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) was positive and anti-M antibody (IgG + IgM) was identified. Therapeutic plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab were used for desensitization. Decrease in positivity of CDC XM and anti-M titer was seen. The transplant was performed successfully. Red cell alloantibody should be considered in differential diagnosis of a positive CDC XM. The utility of DSA lysate XM as a pretransplant monitoring tool is immense in such situations. Institutional policies regarding plan of action in the event of positive CDC XM and negative DSA lysate XM and vice versa should be formed.
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Is it an acute pain transfusion reaction? p. 97
Remi Remakanth, B Abhishekh
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_100_20  
A 40-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with complaints of anasarca, mild dyspnea, orthopnea, vomiting, and decreased urine output. A provisional diagnosis of chronic kidney disease was made and planned for hemodialysis. In view of severe anemia, 1 packed red blood cell (PRBC) was requested and after pretransfusion testing one unit of buffy coat-poor, nonleucofiltered, coombs cross-match compatible, fresh (<7-days old) saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol PRBC unit was issued. After transfusion of around 20 ml of red cells patient developed sudden onset of excruciating pain in the lower back and hip joints, tachypnea, and breathlessness with oxygen saturation dropping to 82%. Vitals were normal and patient remained afebrile. After stopping transfusion, supplemental oxygen and opioid analgesic were given. Once the symptoms subsided, transfusion was completed. A complete work-up was done to rule out other adverse reactions. Thus, this patient experienced what is known as an acute pain transfusion reaction.
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A rare case of antibody against enhancement media interfering with crossmatching: A case report and review of literature p. 100
S Anuragaa, Dibyajyoti Sahoo, B Abhishekh, Revathy Nair
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_99_20  
Detection of clinically significant alloantibodies during pretransfusion testing is essential before any blood transfusion. Sometimes, clinically insignificant antibodies unrelated to blood group antigen may interfere with routine testing. Their interpretation is often made only after tedious immunohematology workup resulting in the exclusion of all possible clinically significant antibodies. We encountered such incidence which interfered with crossmatching. In our case, direct antiglobulin test was negative, indirect antiglobulin test and autocontrol were positive with pan-reactive antibody screening test, and group-specific units were incompatible. After meticulous workup, we could find that these antibodies were directed against the enhancement media, low-ionic strength solution in this case.
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Just not cosmesis! Role of low-density lipoprotein apheresis in familial hypercholesterolemia: Experience at a newly developed tertiary care institution in Northern India p. 104
Daljit Kaur, Gita Negi, Rohit Walia, Sheetal Malhotra, Riti Bhatia, Sushant K Meinia, Saikat Mandal, Ashish Jain
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_76_20  
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by an increase in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. It presents with tendon/skin xanthomas and premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The most available treatment options for FH are lipid-lowering medications such as statins, lifestyle modification, and LDL apheresis. As per American Society for Apheresis guidelines 2019, the treatment of FH using LDL apheresis falls under Category I. Here, we are reporting an interesting case of a young patient who presented with chief complaints of progressively increasing yellowish lesions around eyes, neck, hands, and legs. She was thoroughly investigated and was diagnosed provisionally as a case of Type 2 FH. Her total serum cholesterol and LDL-C were 717.2 mg/dl and 690.6 mg/dl, respectively, at presentation. One cycle of LDL apheresis was planned for her. We found immediate post-procedural reduction of 55.8% and 55.3% for total serum and LDL cholesterol levels respectively while 70.58% and 77.41% reduction in the levels from the day of presentation to the hospital.
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A case report of multiple Rh alloantibodies in a pregnant female: Resolution by sequential adsorption p. 109
Divya Setya, Aseem K Tiwari, Dinesh Arora, Swati Pabbi Mehta, Geet Aggarwal
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_101_19  
Anti-G antibody mimics the reactivity pattern of coexistent anti-D and anti-C. Differentiating between the two is significant in antenatal females where the decision to administer RhD prophylaxis is based on the presence or absence of anti-D antibody. The aim of reporting this serological challenge is to emphasize the need for phenotyping red cells for sourcing appropriate in house red cell reagents and to help transfusion services sharpen problem-solving skills. A 26-year-old pregnant female with a complicated obstetric history and a positive indirect antiglobulin test presented to the hospital for antenatal assessment at 24 weeks. A positive antibody screen warranted identification of the implicating antibodies. Since identification was suggestive of multiple alloantibodies whose specificities could not be confirmed, step-wise sequential adsorption and elution was required. Anti-D, anti-C, and anti-E antibodies were identified in patient plasma with titers of 1024, 4, and 32, respectively. The absence of anti-G was also confirmed. Multiple alloantibodies can pose a challenge to transfusion services. However, with the help of select cells, phenotyping, adsorption elution studies, and phenotyped donor units; solving complex serological cases can be accomplished.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among blood donors at a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry, India. Is testing donated blood for cytomegalovirus a viable option? p. 113
Jayasree Cherukat, Sajini E Jacob, Rajendra Kulkarni, Abhishekh Basavarajegowda
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_1_19  
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Potential serological challenges caused by anti-IH antibody in the crossmatch laboratory p. 115
Manish Raturi, Shamee Shastry, Ganesh Mohan
DOI:10.4103/ajts.AJTS_71_19  
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COVID-19 pandemic preparedness of blood center p. 117
Kajal Khajuria, Kusum Thakur, Raman Sharma, Achchhar Singh
DOI:10.4103/ajts.ajts_164_20  
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2006 - Asian Journal of Transfusion Science | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th November, 2006