Asian Journal of Transfusion Science

LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Year
: 2012  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 46--47

Hematological evaluation of acquired von Willebrand syndrome before oral surgery: Management of an unusual case


Gian P Bombeccari1, Gianpaolo Guzzi2, Paolo Bucciarelli3, Francesco Pallotti4, Francesco Spadari1,  
1 Department of Reconstructive and Diagnostic Surgical Sciences, Unit of Oral Pathology and Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
2 Italian Association for Metals and Biocompatibility Research (AIRMEB), Milan, Italy
3 Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, A. Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Milan, Italy
4 Unit of Anatomical Pathology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

Correspondence Address:
Gian P Bombeccari
Department of Reconstructive and Diagnostic Surgical Sciences, Unit of Oral Pathology and Medicine, University of Milan, Milan
Italy




How to cite this article:
Bombeccari GP, Guzzi G, Bucciarelli P, Pallotti F, Spadari F. Hematological evaluation of acquired von Willebrand syndrome before oral surgery: Management of an unusual case.Asian J Transfus Sci 2012;6:46-47


How to cite this URL:
Bombeccari GP, Guzzi G, Bucciarelli P, Pallotti F, Spadari F. Hematological evaluation of acquired von Willebrand syndrome before oral surgery: Management of an unusual case. Asian J Transfus Sci [serial online] 2012 [cited 2022 Jun 30 ];6:46-47
Available from: https://www.ajts.org/text.asp?2012/6/1/46/95052


Full Text

Sir,

Patients with monoclonal gammopathies of uncertain significance (MGUS) may develop an acquired bleeding disorder similar to congenital von Willebrand's disease (vWD), called acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS). [1]

An 88-year-old male patient presented to our department for bleeding episodes from a nodule on the tongue caused by dental trauma. Blood tests showed a mild form of iron-deficiency anemia. Serum protein and immunofixation electrophoresis revealed a monoclonal IgM-κ component. Bence Jones proteinuria was undetectable. A diagnosis of IgM-MGUS was made by his hematologist. Liver and/or kidney diseases were absent. The patient was not taking any medications that could have altered blood coagulation. The family history of bleeding was negative. The coagulation tests are summarized in [Table 1]. The patient was referred to the Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center of the same hospital to characterize the vWD type. A diagnosis of vWD type 2A was made. In order to distinguish between an inherited vWD and an AvWS, a quantitative analysis of the plasma vWF propeptide (pro-VWF:Ag) was performed using ELISA technique. Normal plasma levels of pro-vWF:Ag were found together with an increased ratio of pro-vWF:Ag to vWF:Ag, indicating an accelerated clearance of vWF from blood circulation. These findings were suggestive of AvWS. [1] {Table 1}

Treatment with 1-deamino-8-d-arginine-vasopressin (DDAVP) which was administered intravenously at a dose of 0.3 μg/kg did not show a significant improvement in bleeding time (BT), plasma levels of factor VIII, and vWF. Thus, he received intravenous infusions of factor VIII/vWF concentrates (Haemate-P; Centeon, Marburg, Germany) at a daily dose of 40 IU/kg until the third postoperative day for an average of five administrations, achieving a shortened BT (from more than 18 min to 8 min) as well as transient correction of factor VIII and vWF plasma levels.

The oral lesion excision was carried out using a diode laser (wavelength 808 nm) set at 1.5 W in the pulsating wave mode. Oral rinses with 10 mL of 4.8% tranexamic acid solution were administered four times a day for seven postoperative days. [2] Histological analysis reported a pyogenic granuloma [Figure 1].{Figure 1}

As far as we know, no consensus exists on the therapeutic management of AvWS in relation to oral soft tissues surgery. [2],[3] The unusual dyscrasia reported here highlights that some AvWS patients may be unresponsive to DDAVP. Thus, the replacement therapy with factor VIII/VWF concentrates remains, the sole option of treatment in AvWS patients with IgM-MGUS, although this will produce transitory effects [4] as was the case in our patient. The photochemistry affinity of the diode lasers to hemoglobin can further help to achieve clot stabilization, by promoting the formation of induced sclerosis laser on the vascular network of the chorion [Figure 2]. {Figure 2}

Dentists may have a role in secondary prevention through the detection of latent AvWS, because they are able to manage minor bleeding problems - often encountered in their daily practice - during oral surgery among dental patients.

References

1Federici AB, Castaman G, Mannucci PM. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of von Willebrand disease in Italy. Haemophilia 2002;8:607-21.
2Federici AB, Sacco R, Stabile F, Carpenedo M, Zingaro E, Mannucci PM. Optimizing local therapy during oral surgery in patients with von Willebrand disease: Effective results from a retrospective analysis of 63 cases. Haemophilia 2000;6:71-7.
3Piot B, Sigaud-Fiks M, Huet P, Fressinaud E, Trossaërt M, Mercier J. Management of dental extractions in patients with bleeding disorders. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2002;93:247-50.
4Federici AB, Stabile F, Castaman G, Canciani MT, Mannucci PM. Treatment of acquired von Willebrand syndrome in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance: Comparison of three different therapeutic approaches. Blood 1998;92:2707-11.